b'A NEW TOOL HELPING YOU IN THE REALM OF RETAIL SEED SALES.SCN AND ITS GREAT MARCH NORTHWARDSoybean cyst nematode has been present in Ontario and Quebec for a while, but after being found in Manitoba in 2019, this threat is also present in the West.Marc ZienkiewiczSOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE (SCN) has been making head- Its too cold. Wrong variety, wrong chemical, not enough lines as it becomes more prevalent in Canada. Accordingnutrients. In the meantime, theyre not really looking at the to research from Iowa State University, it is the mostroots as much as they should be. The sooner they detect damaging pathogen of soybean in the United States andSCN, the better, because they can then implement manage-Canada, and it is spreading rapidly. SCN was first foundment strategies before disease pressure gets too high.in the United States in 1954, and most recent estimates show that it results in $1.5 billion in annual soybeanWhat should growers look for?yield losses. According to the research, it was found inLook for stunted plants, poor canopy cover, yellowing 55 new counties in the United States, and 24 new coun- growth, poor weed control, cysts on the roots. Wherever ties and rural municipalities in Canada, between 2017 andsoybeans are grown in Ontario, it is probably there. Its 2020. After initially wreaking havoc in Ontario and thencrucial to know the difference between a cyst versus a Quebec, Manitoba reported SCN for the first time in 2017. nodule. Some people do get those two confused. Root-knot nematode causes the roots to produce characteristic swellings or galls which are easily distinguishable from Shannon Bieman nitrogen-fixing nodules. Female soybean cyst nematode Market Development, Western Ontario can often be observed in the field as white to yellow SeCan cysts attached to the roots. Although visible to the naked Shannon is responsible for developing sales andeye, the female cysts are very small and can easily be marketing strategies to help SeCan membersmissed, according to Oklahoma State University. build their sales volumes and meet demandThe SCN life stages are also really important to under-for new products in eastern Canada. Shannonstand. Its also important to test your soil to determine works directly with members and seed retailersyour SCN populations. We also have to use crop protec-located in western Ontario. tion products that will secure the variety itself, because that variety is only as good as the package that its been What do you tell SeCan clients about SCN? given. Finally, rotation is crucial. We have to take that The first thing I actually challenge people to do is to startfield out of soybean for at least three years, if not five. thinking about the seed itself. Years ago, we were encour-aged to think about the chemistries that we use on seed,What role does variety selection play?and not as much about what was in the package. In allWe have to get away from using older, susceptible varie-fairness, that package didnt have much. It just had theties in favour of SCN-resistant ones.Make sure that you seed. Now were looking at a lot of genes and traits thatunderstand your genetics and you understand the plat-are in those platforms. forms that are behind that seed. Its really important as seed sellers and as growers that were not basing all our What are you seeing in Ontario with regard to SCN? decisions strictly on yield. There are some dynamic varie-Its spreading very, very aggressively across the province.ties out there with some really great yields. Even with There are many retailers and many growers that arentnumerous traits in them, it doesnt bring down your yield. aware and theyre not testing for it. Yields have decreasedUnderstand the importance of the genetics behind that rapidly over a number of years. Growers have tended toseed, because it may get to be more important than your blame everything else but SCN. Its too wet. Its too dry.herbicide and fungicide applications are.36GERMINATION.CAJANUARY 2022'