b"Nathan Schroeder Mario TenutaPlant Pathologist Soil ScientistUniversity of Illinois University of ManitobaNathan makes new discoveries on the biologyMarios training includes a B.Sc. in botany and of nematodes, one of the worlds mostphysical geography, an M.Sc. in soil science, abundant group of animals. His work identifiesa Ph.D. in plant sciences, and post-doctoral how nematodes survive difficult environmentalresearch in nematology. Most recently, he conditions, which helps control parasiticwas appointed to the Natural Sciences and nematodes and reveals how higher animals likeEngineering Research Council of Canada.humans deal with stress.How does the SCN lifecycle work? What does SCN look like in Canada?The nematode starts off as a microscopic egg, which isThis is what I call the Great March Northward of SCN not visible. Its about 50 microns in diameter. This willfrom the United States. Its been present in Ontario for hatch into a wormlike structure, a second stage juvenile,a few decades, and in Quebec since 2013. In 2017 we and this is what infects the plant and feeds on it. A femaledetected it in Manitoba, and it has been found in four can produce hundreds of eggs, which can stay dormant inrural municipalities there. Its been easily able to move soil for many years. This actually becomes pretty impor- into Canada from the United States. Our temperatures tant when we talk about control strategies. Once thehere dont seem to have stalled it. Our winters dont seem female dies, her body will actually change colour from ato have had any significant effect on slowing it down. whitish colouration into a dark brown colour. Once it gets to that dark brown colour, even though it's large enoughHow can it be slowed down?that you could see it with your bare eye, it becomes hardClean machinery, tires and footwear. This is key, as to discern.equipment is a great method of spreading SCN. Know your field risk areas. You can also dig plants to scout How can we manage it? fields. To scout, get out of the truck and walk. Thirty to The first strategy is rotation. In comparison to some of the45 days after emergence, gently lift roots with a spade, other plant parasitic nematodes that are out there, SCNdunk in a bucket of water for clay soils, and look for has a relatively limited host range. It will feed on somefemales using a hand lens.other species of plants besides soybeans, but there areAlso, avoid tight rotations. Dont rotate with edible a lot of non-host crops that growers can choose from tobeans and pea. As has already been mentioned, use rotate with soybean.resistant varieties.The other main control strategy that we always rec-ommend is to use a SCN-resistant soybean variety. TheWhy not rotate with edible bean and pea?great thing about SCN resistance is that its not costingThere are other host crops for SCN, particularly some of the farmer any extra dollars. To buy an SCN resistantour dry edible beans like kidney beans. Where you have variety of seed doesnt cost anything more than a SCN- both dry edible bean and soybean, your management susceptible variety.and your rotation need to take that into account. With the Great March Northwards, integrated management of SCN What about chemistry? is required. At least in the U.S. market, there are about a dozen or so different seed treatments to guard against SCN. Were still trying to get new data on these in terms of looking at their efficacy, but it is something to consider adding in combination with resistance and rotation. Watch our recent Retail Roundtable webinar on this very topic atgermination.ca/scnSUPPORTED BY: ENDORSED BY:38GERMINATION.CAJANUARY 2022"